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    王建勛《馴化利維坦:有限政府的一般理論》序

    在中國過去近四十年的改革開放過程中,盡管有“以經濟建設為中心”的說法,但是,民主與法制(法治)的建設始終是一個毋庸置疑的主題,也是一個衡量整個改革開放進展程度的重要檢測指標。在一定意義上可以說,何時在法治方面有些進展,改革就會顯示出更多的活力;何時改革陷入停滯狀態,那一定會伴生著對法治理念的抵制,也許那正是推動依憲治國方面——或者用我們更常見的話語,在政治體制改革方面——遭遇挫折或停滯的一個必然結果。

    的確,近年來,我們正在遭遇到這種困難。在中國的經濟總量和國際影響力愈來愈提升的今天,法治建設方面卻出現了某些問題。政府的公權力在不斷膨脹,公民基本權利遭侵犯的情況并不少見。所有這一些,都再清楚不過地表明中國在轉型道路上遇到了困難和危機。

    國人對于“有限政府的一般理論”缺乏準確的理解,知識上的不足很自然地導致了認知和實踐中的混亂。例如某些人會人為地在中國的“依憲治國”與所謂“西方憲政”之間劃出界限,斷言后者屬于西方國家的“意識形態武器”,用于改變中國的社會主義制度。即便是一些推動憲政的學者,也存在著某種含糊其辭的話語特色,尤其是試圖把某些與現代憲政難以兼容的理論正當化,或者回避其間的矛盾,以求用瞞天過海的策略實現真正的憲政。在這種情況下,清楚的憲政目標的設定,整體性的憲政體制框架以及實現憲政途徑的構思都無從談起。

    在這種背景之下,王建勛博士的這本《馴化利維坦——有限政府的一般理論》就成為今天這個時代的中國最切合需求的著作。建勛早在北大法學院攻讀碩士期間,就表現出對于公法學的濃厚興趣。后來留學美國印第安納大學,師從政治學大師奧斯特羅姆攻讀博士,深受奧氏有關聯邦主義思想的影響,對于美國憲政的地方自治一面有深入的研究。獲得博士學位后回國,在中國政法大學任教,近年來筆耕不輟,成為西方憲政研究方面的頗具影響力的年輕學人。而這本書,正是他對憲政問題全面研究的一個結晶。

    本書注重憲政體制的框架梳理,其中包括對制度構造原理和歷史背景的描述和分析,由于對各派學說以及不同國家憲政形成過程的諳熟,征引豐富,分析透徹,極具說服力。建勛寫作的一個特點是具有很強的論辯色彩,那就是隨時隨地對于某些似是而非的質疑憲政的觀點作出強有力的反駁,從而讓讀者對于有限政府具體制度的理解更加清晰、深入和圓滿。

    作者對本書的論述范圍有清楚的界定,那就是分析有限政府的意涵與價值,而不是討論一個社會如何從前憲政向憲政的轉型途徑和推動力量。不過,我作為讀者卻有些得隴望蜀,很希望在這個方面能夠讀到作者的某些獨到論述。例如,在今天的中國,雖然有那么多的憲法學家以及更多的知識分子熱切地期盼有限政府體制的早日建立,但是,現實中推動者遭遇到的那種周期性的無力感卻總是揮之不去。既有的主流意識形態怎樣改造才能與有限政府理論兼容?在構思一種符合有限政府要求的政黨制度方面該如何達成社會共識?中國兩千年來郡縣制而非封建制的實踐帶來的近乎無地方政府,或嚴復所指責的那種“尺柄寸權,悉歸國家”的傳統該怎樣改造?產生在階級沖突與妥協背景下的西方憲政模式怎樣在一個缺乏這種階級結構的社會里獲得必要的動力?在一個專業司法長期付諸闕如的文化里,司法獨立的體制如何構建,如何面對專業司法與一般民情之間的緊張?凡此種種,都是當今中國的憲法學人所無法回避的挑戰,也不妨說是我們對作者進一步研究的一種熱切的期盼。

    (作者:賀衛方,2016年5月23日)

    責任編輯: 韋海生

    本站文章均標明作者或出處,僅供個人學習之用,如有侵權,請在下方留言,我將盡快刪除。

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